ASPEK PSIKOSOSIAL, AKTIVITAS FISIK, DAN KONSUMSI MAKANAN LANSIA DI MASYARAKAT
(Psychosocial Aspect, Physical Activity, and Food Consumption of the Elderly in Community)
Rusilanti1, Clara M Kusharto2, dan Ekawati S Wahyuni3
 Staf Pengajar Jurusan IKK, FT, Universitas Negeri Jakarta.
2 Staf Pengajar Departemen Gizi Masyarakat, Fakultas Ekologi Manusia (FEMA), IPB.
3 Staf Pengajar Departemen Komunikasi dan Pengembangan Masyarakat, Fakultas Ekologi Manusia (FEMA), IPB.
This research attempts to analyze psychosocial aspect, physical activity, and food consumption of the elderly living in the community dwelling. Research locations were chosen purposively in three POSBINDU (The Services Post for Elderly) located at areal of Bogor City, namely: Kelurahan Budi Agung (represents city-high income society), Kelurahan Baranangsiang (city-moderate to low society), and Kelurahan Situ Gede (boundary between city to rural-low income society). A simple random sampling was applied to select the subjects. One hundred ninety-seven (197) subjects aged range 60-85 years old (mean age 68.4 years) were selected in those places and completed the survey between August 2004-July 2006. A cross –sectional design and one point approach was followed (Singarimbun & Effendi, 1995). A structured questionnaire was developed to collect data about psychological aspects (family and community support; health behavior; level of depression; life satisfaction), and food consumption limited to some nutrients essensial for elderly. For physical activity assessment, each subject rated his/her capacity involved in housekeeping. A descriptive, Chi Square, One Way ANOVA and Tuckey tests were applied to analyze the data. The research results showed that there is no significance difference among elderly in three sites in terms of psychological aspect. However, there are significance differences in health behavior and physical activity. The worst health behavior and physical activity conditions were found among elderly in Kelurahan Situ Gede caused by the social-economic differences. In terms of food consumption aspects, the significance differences exist in intake of vitamin A, vitamin B, and calcium among the subjects.
Keywords: elderly, psychosocial, physical activity, food intake, community dwelling.
PENGARUH PENYULUHAN GIZI-KESEHATAN DAN FAKTOR LAINNYA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN ANAK USIA PRASEKOLAH
(The Influence of Nutrition-Health Extension and Other Factors on Growth of Pre-School Children)
Yuliana1, Ali Khomsan2, Soemiarti Patmonodewo3, Hadi Riyadi2, dan Deddy Muchtadi4
1 Staf Pengajar Jurusan IKK, Fakultas Teknik, Universitas Negeri Padang
2 Staf Pengajar Departemen Gizi Masyarakat, Fakultas Ekologi Manusia (FEMA), IPB
3 Staf Pengajar Fakultas Psikologi, Universitas Indonesia
4 Staf Pengajar Departemen Teknologi Pangan, Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian (FATETA), IPB
The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of extension on nutrition-health and other factors on the growth of pre-school children. The design of this study was a quasi experiment. The subjects of this study were pre-school children aged 3-6 year old with some specified criteria, such as having no story of severe malnutrition and low birth weight, having a complete parents, literacy ability of the mother, stated in a health condition/undefect handicapped, and did not follow any programs of early-age children education. The subjects were divided into two groups, namely group of control and group of intervention. The primary data collected consisted of family’s characteristics, child’s characteristics, and children’s care and development environment. Generally, there was no significant difference between pre- and post-test of mother’s knowledge on nutrition-health, both of control and intervention groups; however, there was a slightly difference on child-care on nutrition-health for the two groups. There was a significant difference on mother’s knowledge on nutrition-health between pre- and post- extension on the both groups. About 51.3% of child’s growth was determined by factors of family and children. The factors which had a possitive significant influence were body lenght, and mother’s knowledge on nutrition-health.
Keywords : intervention, caring, cognitive, psychomotor, social, emotional.
MODEL PENDUGA BERAT BAYI LAHIR BERDASARKAN PENGUKURAN LINGKAR PINGGANG IBU HAMIL
(Estimation Model of Birthweight Based on Waist Circumference Measurement of Pregnant Women)
Chairunita1, Hardinsyah2 dan Cesilia M. Dwiriani2
1 Alumni Pascasarjana Program Studi GMK IPB.
2 Staf Pengajar Departemen Gizi Masyakat,Fakultas Ekologi Manusia (FEMA) IPB.
Nutritional status of pregnant women can be measured by anthropometry which is simple and non expensive. Waist circumference of pregnant women (WCP) may reflects uterus and fetus growth. The objective of this study is to develop an estimation model of birth weight based on WCP during the third trimester. For this purpose 250 pregnant women were selected from six health centers and five midwife clinics of Tanah Sareal, Bogor. Body height and weight, waist and hip circumferences, mid-upper arm circumference, fundal height were measured on 28th, 32nd , and 36th week of gestation. Body weight prior to pregnancy, history of pregnancy and birth, and food consumption was collected through an interview. The results show the two most appropriate estimation models of birth weight are based on WCP (R2=28.58%) and body weight (R2=28.27%) on 28 week of gestation, with the equations are : birth weight = 166.4(WCP)3 – 977.6(WCP)2 + 1914.7(WCP) – 1246.6 and birth weight = 14.7(body weight)3 – 79.4(body weight)2 + 143.1(body weight) – 82.5. Further prospective study with larger sample size are required to develop an estimation model of birthweight.
Keywords : estimation model of birthweight, waist circumference measurement, pregnant
ESTIMASI KERUGIAN EKONOMI AKIBAT STATUS GIZI BURUK DAN BIAYA PENANGGULANGANNYA PADA BALITA DI BERBAGAI PROVINSI DI INDONESIA
(Estimation of Economic Lost of Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) among Underfive Years Old Children in Indonesia and Cost of Food Supplementation)
Muhammad Aries1 dan Drajat Martianto2
1 Alumni Jurusan Gizi Masyarakat dan Sumberdaya Keluarga, FAPERTA, IPB
2 Staf Pengajar Departemen Gizi Masyarakat, Fakultas Ekologi Manusia (FEMA), IPB
The study was aimed to estimate GDP lost due to Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) among under five children at various provinces in Indonesia. It was a descriptive study used secondary data. Data analysis was conducted in Bogor, from January to March 2006. The data uses are prevalence of PEM among under five children in various provinces in 2003, Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP) of provinces in Indonesia by industrial origin 2000 – 2004, population by province, sex and age group 2003, composite Consumers Price Index (CPI) of 45 cities (2002 = 100). The study showed that the economic lost due to malnutrition (PEM) among under five children in Indonesia was ranged from 0.27% to 1.21% GDP.
Keyword: economic lost, Protein Energy Malnutrition, cost of food supplementation.
PEMANFAATAN TEPUNG BEKATUL RENDAH LEMAK PADA PEMBUATAN KERIPIK SIMULASI
(Utilizing Defatted Rice Bran Flour In Making of Simulated Chips)
(Evy Damayanthi1 dan Dwi Inne Listyorini2)
1 Staf Pengajar Departemen Gizi Masyarakat, Fakultas Ekologi Manusia (FEMA), IPB
2 Alumni Jurusan Gizi Masyarakat dan Sumberdaya Keluarga, FAPERTA, IPB
The objectives of this study are to determine the substitution level of defatted rice bran flour substituted to wheat flour, to know the impact of defatted rice bran flour substitution to physical, chemical and organoleptic characteristics of simulated chips, and to compare defatted rice bran flour with whole rice bran flour as substituted raw material in making of simulated chips to physical, chemical, and organoleptic characteristics. The substitution of defatted rice bran increased content of water, ash, protein and fiber, but fat, carbohydrate and energy decreased compare with control simulated chips (a = 0.05). Organoleptic test of simulated chips with some levels of defatted rice bran flour substitution showed that acceptance of panelist to color has mode ranged from not like to like; mode of aroma ranged from neutral to like; and both of taste and crispiness has mode ranged from not like to like. Percentage of panelist that accepted simulated chips color in some level of defatted rice bran flour substitution ranged from 20% to 96.7%, aroma 76.7% to 90%, taste 50% to 100% and crispiness 53.3% to 100%. The substitution of defatted rice bran flour will decrease acceptance of panelist to color, aroma, taste and crispiness (a = 0,05). Simulated chips substituted by defatted rice bran flour and whole rice bran flour shows that the content of water, ashes, carbohydrate, energy, insoluble dietary fiber and total dietary fiber of simulated chips were not significantly difference (a = 0.05), but there was a significantly difference for fat and soluble dietary fiber. The organoleptic test showed that the color, aroma and taste of simulated chips were not significantly difference, but there was a significantly difference for crispiness (a = 0,05).
Keywords: defatted rice bran flour, whole rice bran flour, simulated chips
SERAT MAKANAN DAN PERANANNYA BAGI KESEHATAN
(Dietary Fiber and Its Role for Health)
Clara M. Kusharto1
 Staf Pengajar Departemen Gizi Masyarakat, Fakultas Ekologi Manusia (FEMA), IPB.
A study of fiber used epidemiological approach proved that in industrial countries occurence of a western diseases were closely related to low fiber diet. The ideal intake of dietary fiber should be considered to produce weight of faeces equivalent to 140 – 150 g/day and a transit time less than 3 days, however others were stated that a variety of body response may also be considered in order to enhance a dietary fiber intake, since each component of dietary fiber gives a difference physiological effect in the body. Daily requirement intake of fiber is 25 – 30 g/man/day. Widyakarya (2004) stated that RDA of dietary fiber for adult and adolescence is 19 – 30 g/cap/day, and for children 10 – 14 g/1000 kcal. A diet contained high fiber has a positive effect to health. However, a further study is still needed with regards to antagonistic role if it is over consumed. Fiber has a unique roles as a component of prebiotic, which is useful for growth of intestinal microflora, and probiotic microflora.
Keywords: dietary fiber, intestinal microflora, prebiotic, probiotic.